By George D. Birkhoff, Ralph Beatley

ISBN-10: 0821821016

ISBN-13: 9780821821015

A hugely urged high-school textual content by way of eminent students

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**Extra resources for Basic Geometry, Third Edition**

**Example text**

Due to the last condition we cannot select the last digit in four ways, because if the fifth or sixth digit were 1, the last digit can be selected in five ways, not four. Let us divide the set of all phone numbers satisfying these conditions into three disjoint sets: the set ofnumbers having neither a fifth nor sixth digit equal to 1, the set of numbers having 1 at the fifth place, and the set of numbers having 1 at the sixth place. In the first set, there are 6 . 5 . 4 choices. In the second set the first five digits are fixed, so there are 6 .

N – 1) . (n –2) . . (n –n + 1) That is, Pn = n! 3 (COMBINATIONS WITHOUT REPETITION). A k-combination without repetition of the set A with n elements is an arbitrary subset of A having k elements. NOTE: The k-combinations are subsets, while k-permutations are ordered ktuples. Let Cnk be the number of all k-combinations of a set with n elements. Since we can form k! different ordered k-tuples from a subset with k elements, we can write Pnk = Cnk . k! That is, where (nk ) (read: n choose k) is the usual notation: 0≤k≤n k < 0 or k >n .

According to Pascal’s formula 126 was obtained as 56 + 70. 35). 35. The combinatorial proof follows. Among n elements of the initial set A we select one and call it x. All kelement subsets of A are divided into two disjoint groups according to whether or not these contain x. There are (n–1 k–1) subsets containing x because besides x, we are free to pick (k – 1) elements from the (n – 1)-element set A – {x}. Similarly there are (n–1 k ) subsets not containing x; hence: Using Pascal’s formula and the symmetry of the binomial coefficients, we can form a larger Pascal’s triangle (Fig.

### Basic Geometry, Third Edition by George D. Birkhoff, Ralph Beatley

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